Luke King, who had previously threatened to put explicit photos of the woman on the internet, changed his profile picture to one of the images.
The woman, from Derbyshire, told police she was “disgusted” and “really upset” by the act of so-called “revenge porn”.
King, 21, of Calcroft Close, Aspley, Nottingham, was jailed for 12 weeks.
He was sentenced at Southern Derbyshire Magistrates’ Court, where he had previously pleaded guilty to the offence, which happened on 8 August.
The woman told police she had sent King the images for him to see only.
Derbyshire Police said King’s victim had previously contacted them when he initially threatened to post the images, and officers warned him not to do so.
A spokesman said: “It’s important for people to realise that it is an offence to harass others in this way. We agree with the judge that it was a despicable thing to do, especially after Luke King received warnings to stop.